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VRLA products have been installed in uncontrolled applications for many years, yet problems persist with short and variable product lives. This has lead to some networks deploying products based on different chemistries – NiCd, NiMH, lithium systems – to varying degrees of satisfaction. Large systems, particularly using large format VRLA products have predominately remained in climate controlled central offices, data centers or CEV’s. The choice to provide climate control for large battery systems appears to be driven by cost factors – historically the batteries are so short lived at even moderately high temperatures that replacement costs for the large systems are higher than the initial cost and utility costs for temperature management.