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Flooded (VLA), Sealed (VRLA), Gel, AGM Type, Flat Plate, Tubular Plate: The When, Where and Why. How Does the End User Decide on the Best Solution?

Wieland Rusch

Keith Vassallo

Gary Hart

In today’s world market of stationary industrial batteries, we find a large variety of battery types. Interestingly, customers in Europe, North America, and Japan prefer different battery types: Tubular low antimony batteries in Europe, lead-calcium flat plate batteries in North America, low height AGM batteries in Japan. Customers and manufacturers are used to such types over the years, understanding their advantages and sometimes disadvantages. Today, the end user of lead-acid batteries has the choice to buy globally. In this regard, this paper will show comparisons of different battery types based on technical and commercial data, life time experience, and life time testing.

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