Click on each author name to view the details.
In the telecommunications industry, batteries have been a critical element of the backup power system for providing power during an AC outage. The rechargeable lead acid batteries, the flooded type in particular, have been used extensively in indoor central offices. They are reliable and have a long life for the application. However, they are heavy and take up a lot of space. For the last 15 years, valve-regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries have gained in popularity due to their compact foot print and higher energy density. They have been deployed extensively in outdoor cabinets, controlled environment vaults, and huts.